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Greyson Murphy
Greyson Murphy

Debian 12 Stable: Download Options and Installation Guide


How to Download and Install Debian 12




Debian is one of the oldest and most influential Linux distributions in the world. It is known for its stability, security, versatility and adherence to free software principles. Debian is also the base for many other popular distributions, such as Ubuntu, Mint, Kali and Pop!_OS.


Debian 12 is the latest stable release of Debian, codenamed "Bookworm". It was released on June 10, 2023, after two years of development. Debian 12 comes with many improvements and new features over Debian 11, such as:




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  • Linux kernel 6.1 with support for new hardware and features



  • Non-free packages in the installer for easier access to proprietary firmware and drivers



  • Pipewire by default for GNOME desktop environment for better audio and video handling



  • A new version of Apt (2.6) package manager with faster performance and enhanced security



  • Updated desktop environments and software packages, such as GNOME 43, KDE Plasma 5.27, LibreOffice 7.4, Firefox ESR and more



  • A new default theme and wallpaper called "Emerald"



In this article, we will show you how to download and install Debian 12 on your computer. We will cover the system requirements, the installation media options, the verification of installation files, and the installation steps.


How to Download Debian 12




System Requirements and Supported Hardware




Before you download Debian 12, you should make sure that your computer meets the minimum system requirements and supports the hardware you have. Here are the minimum system requirements for Debian 12:


  • 2 GB RAM or more



  • Dual Core Processor or higher



  • 20 GB Disk Space or more



  • Bootable Media (USB or DVD)



  • Internet Connectivity (Optional)



Debian supports a wide range of architectures, such as amd64 (64-bit PC), i386 (32-bit PC), arm64 (64-bit ARM), armel (EABI ARM), armhf (Hard Float ABI ARM), mips64el (64-bit MIPS little endian), ppc64el (64-bit Little Endian PowerPC) and s390x (IBM System z). You can check the supported hardware list on the .


Installation Media Options and Sources




You can install Debian 12 from various installation media options, such as CD/DVD/BD-ROM, USB memory stick, network booting or hard disk booting. Depending on your internet connection speed and your preference, you can choose one of these options.


The official source for downloading Debian installation images is the . There you can find different types of images for different purposes:


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  • A small installation image: This is a minimal image that can be downloaded quickly and recorded onto a removable disk. To use this image, you will need a machine with an internet connection. This image will download additional packages from online repositories during installation.



  • A larger complete installation image: This is a full image that contains more packages and can be used to install machines without an internet connection. This image is larger in size and takes longer to download.



  • A live system image: This is an image that allows you to try Debian without installing it on your computer or another machine. You can also install Debian from this image if you like.



  • A multi-arch image: This is an image that supports multiple architectures and can be used to install Debian on machines with different CPU types.



You can also download Debian installation images from other sources, such as . However, you should always verify the integrity of the downloaded files before using them.


Verifying the Integrity of Installation Files




It is important to verify the integrity of the installation files you download, to ensure that they are not corrupted or tampered with. There are two ways to do this:


  • Using checksums: A checksum is a short string of characters that represents the content of a file. You can compare the checksum of the downloaded file with the checksum provided by the official source. If they match, it means the file is intact and authentic. You can use tools such as to generate and verify checksums.



  • Using digital signatures: A digital signature is a cryptographic method that proves that a file was created by a trusted source and has not been altered. You can use tools such as .



If you find any discrepancy or error in the verification process, you should not use the installation file and report the issue to the Debian team.


How to Install Debian 12




Booting the Installer and Choosing Language and Location




Once you have downloaded and verified the installation file, you can record it onto a bootable media, such as a USB stick or a DVD. Then, you can insert the media into your computer and boot from it. You may need to change the boot order in your BIOS or UEFI settings to do this.


When you boot from the installation media, you will see a menu with different options. You can choose one of these options depending on your preference:


  • Graphical install: This option will launch a graphical user interface (GUI) for the installer, which is more user-friendly and intuitive.



  • Install: This option will launch a text-based user interface (TUI) for the installer, which is more compatible with older hardware and low-end machines.



  • Advanced options: This option will give you access to more options, such as expert mode, rescue mode, automated install, or accessibility features.



  • Help: This option will display some help information about the installer and its usage.



After choosing an option, you will be asked to select your language, your location, and your keyboard layout. These settings will affect the installer's behavior and your system's configuration. You can change them later if needed.


Setting up Hostname, Domain Name, Root Password and User Account




The next step is to set up some basic information about your system and your user account. You will be asked to enter:


  • A hostname: This is a name that identifies your system on a network. You can choose any name you like, as long as it does not contain spaces or special characters.



  • A domain name: This is a name that identifies your system's group or organization on a network. You can leave this blank if you don't have one or don't know what it is.



  • A root password: This is a password that gives you full administrative access to your system. You should choose a strong and secure password that you can remember. You will need this password to perform system maintenance tasks or install software packages.



  • A user account: This is an account that you will use for your daily activities on your system. You should choose a username and a password that are different from the root password. You can also enter your full name and choose whether to encrypt your home directory or not.



You should write down these information somewhere safe, as you will need them later to log in to your system.


Partitioning the Disk and Selecting Software Packages




The next step is to partition your disk and select the software packages you want to install on your system. Partitioning is the process of dividing your disk into logical sections, called partitions, where you can store your data and your system files. You can use different file systems, such as ext4, btrfs, xfs, or fat32, for different partitions. You can also use encryption or RAID for extra security or performance.


The installer will offer you several options for partitioning your disk:


  • Guided: This option will automatically partition your disk according to some predefined schemes, such as using the entire disk, using the entire disk with LVM (Logical Volume Manager), or using the entire disk with encryption. You can choose one of these schemes and let the installer do the rest.



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